Barak Rosenshine, ‘Principles of Instruction: Research-Based Strategies That All Teachers Should Know’, American Educator, Spring 2012 pp. 12-19 and p. 39

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There really is no excuse for teachers not to read this.  It is only 9 pages long and it is packed with useful information and tips.  In writing this article, Rosenshine draws on evidence from cognitive psychology, as well as on research examining the methods used in the classroom by master teachers (those who students make the ‘highest gains in achievement tests’).  In general terms, a lot of the ground covered by this article will be familiar.  Among Rosenshine’s principles of instruction are: recap on previous learning; introduce ‘new material in small steps with student practice after each step’; provide models and scaffolds; use questioning to check for student understanding; make sure students revise material regularly; set tasks which students must complete independently and monitor the completion of these tasks carefully.  In explaining why these teaching techniques should be routinely used by all teachers, Rosenshine gives lots of helpful specifics. …

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