The difference between data, information, knowledge and wisdom

From experience to meaning...

Yesterday I had a sort of aha-erlebnis while listening to a talk and ended up with my own kind of taxonomy. And of course, somebody way smarter than me already made this way before me. So I’m not sharing my taxonomy, but somebody else’s idea.

It is probably not usable to make goals in education so it isn’t even a taxonomy as such, but it may help in some present educational discussions. .

The four elements are:

  • Data
  • Information:
  • Knowledge
  • Wisdom

Ackoff added understanding to this list – right between Knowledge and Wisdom, but I agree with Gene Bellinger, Durval Castro, Anthony Mills (2004) that understanding is of a different order and could be regarded as a tool e.g. to get from information to knowledge as described in this paragraph:

The first tree elements can be described as follows (Zins, 2007):

  • Data are sets of signs that represent empirical stimuli or…

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